the value for an indicator that has some defined environmental significance (or threshold) in the functioning of the natural system. An example is the concentration of pollutants that can be tolerated without damaging health. Whereas targets have a basis in policy and reflect human values, benchmarks are scientifically determined ( see targets)
an approximate reflection of reality, it is not reality itself
The mix of currencies, investment instruments, and duration that reflect the reserve manager's tolerance for exposure to liquidity, credit, and market risks.